counterfeit là gì

Counterfeit t-shirts at a flea market.
Counterfeit Brazilian banknotes
U.S. CBP Office of Field Operations agent checking the authenticity of a travel document at an international airport using a stereo microscope

To counterfeit means to tướng imitate something authentic, with the intent to tướng steal, destroy, or replace the original, for use in illegal transactions, or otherwise to tướng deceive individuals into believing that the nhái is of equal or greater value than thở the real thing. Counterfeit products are fakes or unauthorized replicas of the real product. Counterfeit products are often produced with the intent to tướng take advantage of the superior value of the imitated product. The word counterfeit frequently describes both the forgeries of currency and documents as well as the imitations of items such as clothing, handbags, shoes, pharmaceuticals, automobile parts, unapproved aircraft parts (which have caused many accidents), watches, electronics and electronic parts, software, works of art, toys, and movies.[1]

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Counterfeit products tend to tướng have nhái company logos and brands, which results in patent or trademark infringement in the case of goods. They also have a reputation for being lower quality, sometimes not working at all, and sometimes containing toxic substances such as lead. This has resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people, due to tướng automobile and aviation accidents, poisoning, or ceasing to tướng take essential compounds (e.g., in the case a person takes non-working medicine).[citation needed]

The counterfeiting of money, mostly paper money, is usually attacked aggressively by governments worldwide.

Forgery of money or government bonds[edit]

Counterfeit money is currency that is produced without the legal sanction of the state or government; this is against the law of all countries. The United States Secret Service, mostly known for its guarding-of-officials task, was initially organized primarily to tướng combat the counterfeiting of U.S. dollars in the wake of the American Civil War. Both sides had printed counterfeit notes in attempts to tướng destabilize the other's economy,[2][3] an example of economic warfare.

Counterfeit government bonds are public debt instruments that are produced without legal sanction, with the intention of "cashing them in" for authentic currency or using them as collateral to tướng secure loans or lines of credit through legitimate channels.

Counterfeiting of documents[edit]

Forgery is the process of making or adapting documents with the intention to tướng deceive. It is a khuông of fraud, and is often a key technique in the execution of identity theft. Uttering and publishing is a term in United States law for the forgery of non-official documents, such as a trucking company's time and weight logs.

Questioned document examination is a scientific process for investigating many aspects of various documents, and is often used to tướng examine the provenance and verity of a suspected forgery. Security printing is a printing industry specialty, focused on creating legal documents which are difficult to tướng forge.

Counterfeit goods[edit]

Bulk bag of counterfeit Viagra

The spread of counterfeit goods, including consumer goods (commonly called "knock-offs" or "rip-offs") and parts within the manufacturing supply chain, has become global in recent years and the range of goods subject to tướng infringement has increased significantly. Apparel and accessories accounted for over 50 percent of the counterfeit goods seized by U.S. Customs and Border Control. According to tướng the study of Counterfeiting Intelligence Bureau (CIB) of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), counterfeit goods làm đẹp 5 to tướng 7% of world trade; however, these figures cannot be substantiated due to tướng the secretive nature of the industry.[4]

A report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development indicates that up to tướng US$200 billion of international trade could have been in counterfeit and illegally copied goods in 2005.[5] In November 2009, the OECD updated these estimates, concluding that the share of counterfeit and illegitimate goods in world trade had increased from 1.85% in 2000 to tướng 1.95% in 2007. That represents an increase to tướng US$250 billion worldwide.[6]

A Sharpie marker, next to tướng a counterfeit "Shoupie" marker

In a detailed breakdown of the counterfeit goods industry, the total loss faced by countries around the world is $600 billion, with the United States facing the most economic impact.[7] When calculating counterfeit products, current estimates place the global losses at $400 billion.[8] On November 29, 2010, the Department of Homeland Security seized and shut down 82 websites as part of a U.S. crackdown of websites that sell counterfeit goods, and was timed to tướng coincide with "Cyber Monday," the start of the holiday online shopping season.[9]

Counterfeit LG brand and products, such as televisions, monitors, air conditioners, etc.

Some see the rise in counterfeiting of goods as being related to tướng globalisation. As more and more companies, in an effort to tướng increase profits, move manufacturing to tướng the cheaper labour markets of the third world, areas with weaker labour laws or environmental regulations, they give the means of production to tướng foreign workers. These new managers of production have little or no loyalty to tướng the original corporation. They see that profits are being made by the global brand for doing little (other than thở advertising) and see the possibilities of removing the middle men (i.e. the parent corporation) and marketing directly to tướng the consumer. This can result in counterfeit products being virtually indistinguishable from original products, as they are being produced in the same company, and in damage to tướng the parent corporation due to tướng copyright infringement.[10]

Certain consumer goods, especially very expensive or desirable brands or those that are easy to tướng reproduce cheaply, have become frequent and common targets of counterfeiting. The counterfeiters either attempt to tướng deceive the consumer into thinking they are purchasing a legitimate item, or convince the consumer that they could deceive others with the imitation. An item which makes no attempt to tướng deceive, such as a copy of a DVD with missing or different cover art or a book without a cover, is often called a "bootleg" or a "pirated copy" instead.

Counterfeiting has also been issued to tướng "cash in" on the ever growing record collecting market. One major example is bootleggers have cloned copies of Elvis Presley's early singles for Sun Records since original copies starting changing hands amongst music fans for hundreds (and then, thousands) of dollars. Some who produce these even vì thế so sánh with the wrong material. For example, the tuy vậy "Heartbreak Hotel" which was never released on Sun, as by the time Elvis first heard it, prior to tướng ever recording it, he had moved from Sun to tướng RCA Victor. Rare releases by The Beatles such as their album with the butcher cover, fan-club only released Christmas records and early demonstration discs issued by EMI are also examples of product reproduced by counterfeiters due to tướng their high value to tướng collectors.

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An authentic Hãng Intel flash memory IC (right) and a counterfeit replica (left). Although the packaging of these ICs is the same, the X-ray images reveal that the inside structure of the nhái one is different.[11]

Many counterfeit goods are produced and manufactured in Trung Quốc, making it the counterfeit capital of the world: the counterfeiting industry accounts for 8% of China's GDP.[12][13] Counterfeit goods are also made in Russia, North Korea, Taiwan, Bulgaria, and Turkey. Turkey is responsible for 3.3% of word's counterfeit goods, according to tướng OCDE. Some counterfeits are produced in the same factory that produce the original, authentic product, using inferior materials.[citation needed] A United States Senate Committee on Armed Services report regarding counterfeit electronic parts in the defense supply chain, highlighted in an investigation commenced in March 2011,[14] found that 1800 cases of suspected counterfeit components were in use within over 1 million individual products".[15] A 2012 follow-up report found that counterfeit parts came "overwhelmingly from China".[16]

Another trend in counterfeiting, especially seen in consumer electronics, is the manufacture of entirely new products using poor quality materials or, more often, incorporating desirable features not present in a brand's authentic product line and then including prominent and nhái brand names and logotypes to tướng profit from brand recognition or brand image. An example would be imitation "Nokia" and "iPhone" cellular phones with features lượt thích dual SIM slots or analog TV, which are unavailable in authentic originals,[17][18] or visually-identical clones of high-end smartphones using inferior components[19] and the Android operating system, often with user interfaces made to tướng resemble the devices they imitate.[20] Another example would be imitation "iPod" MP3 players whose batteries are removable and replaceable, whereas in authentic originals the batteries are permanently installed.[21][22]

In the United States, a federal crackdown on counterfeit imports is driving an increase in domestic output of nhái merchandise, according to tướng investigators and industry executives. Raids carried out in Thành Phố New York City resulted in the seizure of an estimated $200 million in counterfeit apparel, bearing the logos of brands such as "The North Face", "Polo", "Izod Lacoste", "Rocawear", "Seven for all Mankind", and "Fubu". One of the largest seizures was a joint operation in Arizona, Texas and California that seized seventy-seven containers of nhái "Nike Air Jordan" shoes and a container of "Abercrombie & Fitch" clothing, valued at $69.5 million. Another current method of attacking counterfeits is at the retail level. Fendi sued the Sam's Club division of Walmart for selling nhái "Fendi" bags and leather goods in five states. Sam's Club agreed to tướng pay Fendi a confidential amount to tướng settle the dispute and dismiss the action. In the case Tiffany v. eBay, Tiffany & Co. sued auction site eBay for allowing the sale of counterfeit items, but lost on all claims.

A number of companies involved in the development of anti-counterfeiting and brand protection solutions have come together to tướng khuông special industry-wide and global organisations dedicated to tướng combating the so-called "brand pirates" such as the International Hologram Manufacturers Association. Other companies and organisations have established web-based communities that provide a framework for crowd-sourced solutions to tướng counterfeiting. One such không tính tiền community, Collectors Proof,[23] enables manufacturers and users alike to tướng associate unique identification numbers to tướng virtually any item so sánh that each new owner can update its chain of custody. Because quality counterfeit items are often difficult to tướng distinguish from authentic goods, this approach enables potential customers to tướng access an item's current and previous owners – its provenance – prior to tướng purchase.

To combat counterfeiting, companies may have the various parts of an item manufactured in independent factories and then limit the supply of certain distinguishing parts to tướng the factory that performs the final assembly to tướng the exact number required for the number of items to tướng be assembled (or as near to tướng that number as is practicable) or may require the factory to tướng tài khoản for every part used and to tướng return any unused, faulty or damaged parts. To help distinguish the originals from the counterfeits, the copyright holder may also employ the use of serial numbers or holograms etc., which may be attached to tướng the product in another factory.[citation needed]

Counterfeit culture[edit]

Counterfeit culture is the thriving markets surrounding nhái streetwear. Most commonly, these markets originate out of areas where the inability to tướng buy popular streetwear brands has fueled more sophisticated markets for counterfeit goods. These markets have spawned the emergence of a tribe of widely available copycat brands.

In countries lượt thích North Korea and Russia where trade sanctions were imposed in the past to tướng prevent the importation of popular brands, demand was stimulated for available counterfeit alternatives. The economic standing of a country or region also contributed to tướng the demand for these products as the average consumer can't afford luxury prices but will gain the same social impact purchasing a knock-off whose quality is almost indistinguishable from the original's.

Luxury streetwear is out of reach for many people, not just because of international sanctions and low wages, but because exclusivity is built into its business model. Social and cultural forces are driving the unique fashion scene. In particular, social truyền thông has a huge influence on over these markets giving people images of things they can't own and further fueling the desire to tướng obtains certain “hyped” items by any means accessible.

Designers have even begun to tướng acknowledge the trend of counterfeit culture by referencing nhái or knock-off goods in their designs. This brought counterfeit culture into the realm of mainstream culture and has essentially shifted global acceptance towards becoming more lenient of these products as an appropriate alternative.

Anti-counterfeiting technologies[edit]

Anti-counterfeiting technologies are added to tướng products or their packaging to tướng allow consumers or inspectors to tướng kiểm tra whether a product is authentic. The EUIPO Observatory on Infringements of Intellectual Property Rights has developed an anti-counterfeiting technology guide,[24] to tướng address the lack of information on technology solutions available on the market and help companies improve their protection against counterfeiting.[25][26] In this guide, the main anti-counterfeiting technologies currently on the market are described, and classified into five main categories:[27]

  • Electronic technologies
  • Marking technologies
  • Chemical and physical technologies
  • Mechanical technologies
  • Technologies for digital media

The International Standard Organization has also published standards related to tướng the implementation of anti-counterfeiting solutions, including ISO 12931[28] and ISO 22381.

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See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Physical Unclonable Functions in Theory and Practice", p. 46, by Christoph Böhm, Maximilian Hofer
  2. ^ Weidenmier, Marc. "Money and Finance in the Confederate States of America". Economic History Association. Archived from the original on January đôi mươi, 2022. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
  3. ^ "Catching Counterfeiters". U.S. Marshals Service. Archived from the original on December 29, 2021. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
  4. ^ ICC Counterfeiting Intelligence Bureau (1997), Countering Counterfeiting: A Guide to tướng Protecting and Enforcing Intellectual Property Rights, United Kingdom.
  5. ^ "The Economic Effect of Counterfeiting and Piracy, Executive Summary" (PDF). OECD, Paris. 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 12, 2015. Retrieved November 15, 2016.
  6. ^ "Magnitude of counterfeiting and piracy of tangible products – November 2009 update" (PDF). OECD, Paris. 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved November 15, 2016.
  7. ^ "Havocscope Counterfeit and Piracy Markets by Countries". Archived from the original on February 4, 2010. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
  8. ^ "Havocscope Counterfeit and Piracy Markets by Products". Archived from the original on March 23, 2010. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
  9. ^ "U.S. Shutters 82 Sites in Crackdown on Downloads, Counterfeit Goods" Archived 2014-01-26 at the Wayback Machine Wired magazine, November 29, 2010
  10. ^ Schmidle, Nicholas (19 August 2010). "Inside the Knockoff-Tennis-Shoe Factory". The Thành Phố New York Times Magazine. Archived from the original on 18 June 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  11. ^ Ahi, Kiarash (2015-05-13). Anwar, Mehdi F; Crowe, Thomas W; Manzur, Tariq (eds.). "Terahertz characterization of electronic components and comparison of terahertz imaging with X-ray imaging techniques". SPIE Sensing Technology+ Applications. Terahertz Physics, Devices, and Systems IX: Advanced Applications in Industry and Defense. 9483: 94830K-94830K-15. Bibcode:2015SPIE.9483E..0KA. doi:10.1117/12.2183128. S2CID 118178651.
  12. ^ "Intellectual Property Rights" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 March 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
  13. ^ "MIT CIS: Publications: Foreign Policy Index". Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
  14. ^ Senate Armed Services Committee, Senate Armed Services Committee Announces Investigation into Counterfeit Electronic Parts in DOD Supply Chain Archived 2022-04-08 at the Wayback Machine, published 9 March 2011, accessed 2 January 2022
  15. ^ Trace Laboratories, Inc., Counterfeit Electronic Components: Understanding the Risk Archived 2022-01-04 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 4 January 2022
  16. ^ Nash-Hoff, M. Senate Report Reveals Extent of Chinese Counterfeit Parts in Defense Industry Archived 2022-04-08 at the Wayback Machine, published 31 May 2012, accessed 12 March 2022
  17. ^ "Shanzhai ji: All you need to tướng know about nhái phones - Mobile Phones". CNET. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  18. ^ "Dual SIM review: Mobiles go two-in-one - page 2". GSM Arena. 3 August 2007. Archived from the original on 30 November 2021. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
  19. ^ Fingas, Jon (5 August 2013). "GooPhone and LG to tướng offer first tri-SIM smartphones using MediaTek chips". Engadget. Archived from the original on 21 March 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  20. ^ Esposito, Dom (24 July 2014). "Hands-on with a functional 4.7-inch iPhone 6 clone w/ heavily detailed, skinned version of Android (Video)". 9to5Google. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  21. ^ Chase, Brendon; Derek Fung (8 October 2009). "Fake iPod versus the real thing". CNET. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  22. ^ Humphries, Matthew (8 February 2011). "L.A. police seize $10 million worth of counterfeit iPhones & iPods". Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  23. ^ "Collectors Proof". Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
  24. ^ "EUIPO Anti-Counterfeiting Technology Guide". European Observatory on Infringements of Intellectual Property Rights. 2021-02-26. Archived from the original on 2021-03-17.
  25. ^ Dillon, Frank (2021-06-08). "13% of consumers misled into buying counterfeit goods or services". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 2021-06-08. Retrieved 2021-06-17.
  26. ^ "Counterfeit problem? The 2021 Anti-counterfeiting Technology Guide". Scantrust. 2021-03-22. Archived from the original on 2021-03-23. Retrieved 2021-06-17.
  27. ^ Linsner, Bristows LLP-Marc. "EUIPO Observatory publishes Anti-counterfeiting Technology Guide | Lexology". Archived from the original on 2021-06-23. Retrieved 2021-03-18.
  28. ^ "ISO 12931, la norme anti-contrefaçon pour tous" (in French). 2012-10-05. Archived from the original on 2021-09-20. Retrieved 2021-06-17.

External links[edit]

  • OECD/EUIPO 2019 report on counterfeiting
  • Anti-counterfeit news and features at
  • Beware of Pirates! How to tướng Avoid Bootleg Blu-rays and DVDs article at Brenton Film
  • Detecting the Truth: Fakes, Forgeries and Trickery virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada