dead end job là gì

From Wikipedia, the không lấy phí encyclopedia

Bạn đang xem: dead end job là gì

A dead-end job is a job where there is little or no chance of career development and advancement into a better position. If an individual requires further education to tướng progress within their firm that is difficult to tướng obtain for any reason, this can result in the occupation being classified as a dead-end position.[1] Based on human resources and career strategist Toni Howard Lowe, some individuals who have worked for the same company for several years may not be privy to tướng the signs that they are currently employed in a dead-end job.[2]

Possible indicators[edit]

Within a large company as a subordinate[edit]

  • Lacking any passion or feeling no challenge in the daily activities of a job, which compromises job performance and efficiency due to tướng a lack of motivation.
  • Being hampered by the presence of a glass ceiling that prohibits advancement in a firm.
  • Not being able to tướng visualize any opportunities for growth in a current position.
  • Working at a firm in financial distress.[2]
  • The responsibilities of the position have not changed within the last three years.
  • One is not actively chosen for high-profile projects, committees, and is passed over for a promotion or has experienced a demotion in their title.
  • The strategic direction of the company has changed and, in turn, one's function within the firm has been minimized or phased out.
  • The relationships with management and fellow co-workers are continuously deteriorating, regardless of attempts to tướng rectify the scarred relationships.[3]
  • There is much turnover in one's position.
  • Complaints of job dissatisfaction within the firm fall on deaf ears.[4]
  • There is risk of one's occupation being made obsolete by automation.[5]



Miscellaneous occupations[edit]

A worker sweeping floor of a parking garage in Atlanta.

Dead-end work is usually regarded as unskilled and the phrase usually applies to tướng those working as shelf stackers, cleaners, Hotline center agents, clerks, or in other menial jobs where the pay is low, and the hours are long. Furthermore, positions not regarded as menial may nonetheless qualify as dead-end jobs and forms of underemployment. A specialized employee working in a small firm in an underdeveloped local market, for example, might have few opportunities for advancement within the company while simultaneously facing a dearth of opportunities outside it. Most dead-end jobs offer little to tướng no transferable skills and may hinder workers from pursuing careers in other companies. Dead-end jobs such as an internal auditing position within a firm, according to tướng, should only be considered and accepted if an individual has a pre-calculated exit strategy ví that one is not stuck permanently within a position of no opportunities.[6] Law librarians and individuals who join firms that are enlisted into estate or trust work consist of low paying occupations which translate to tướng dead-end jobs with no opportunities of growth.[7]

Few fast-food franchise employees receive any type of work benefits and their wages are ví low that they are unable to tướng make enough income to tướng supply themselves with life's basic necessities, especially if they are employed part-time. Part-time employees often need to tướng work two to tướng three jobs to tướng make ends meet or require government assistance in the sườn of food stamps at the expense of other taxpayers to tướng live. Most of these fast-food positions are considered dead-end jobs because of the traits listed above, in addition to tướng the lack of opportunities within the fast-food realm, and the inability to tướng organize to tướng improve their working conditions. Presently, any positive modification to tướng the wages and benefits for low paid fast-food employees to tướng make the occupation more appealing could signal a movement consisting of a mass firing of employees in favor of kiosks and robots. As Andrew Puzder, former CEO of Carl's Jr. and Hardee's, stated: "Robots and kiosks are always polite, they always upsell, they never take a vacation, they never show up late, there's never a slip-and-fall, or an age, sex, or race discrimination case."[8]

Dead-end jobs are not limited to tướng menial labor, retail or fast food roles. Professional positions in Hotline centers, loss-mitigation underwriting, administrative and clerical work may also offer almost no advancement potential.[9][10]

Medical field occupations[edit]

A survey was conducted in Scotland to tướng obtain feedback on issues regarding education and professional topics. The results revealed that only one out of 25 Registered Mental Nurses (RMNs) would recommend other individuals in pursuing their profession. Over half of the participants in the survey mentioned that they have reached their career's highest level. Additionally, 'reprofiling exercises' and skill mix activities conducted within this profession has led to tướng a decrease of registered nurses within the industry. 66% of the respondents also stated that their organizations provide no opportunities to tướng grow despite being interested in progressing within their career. One out of six participants exclaimed that the position of a Register Mental Nurse is a dead-end job due to tướng the reasons above in addition to tướng there being no clear direction for their career path. Because of these downfalls, nurses who have reached their highest capacity demonstrate more signs of despondency about their career path compared to tướng their counterparts employed at lower increments.[11]

A job residing within the realm of medical inspection is also considered a dead-end job. There is an absence of progression in the areas of status, responsibilities, and salary for this current field of work. SMOs or School Medical Officers have experienced dissatisfaction with the lack of progression as described above, in addition to tướng the redundancy of work-related activities. The responsibility of medical inspection of school children encompasses mainly of the routine inspection of a large population of children and presents very little to tướng no feature of the greater interest in medicine. The starting salary of these workers is low and inadequate, and they are not supplemented with any substantial raises to tướng compensate their low starting salaries. [12]

Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs), also known as long-term care workers, represent the frontline workers who assist individuals with disabilities with instrumental activities such as using the phone and daily activities such as bathing or eating. It is a challenge to tướng recruit them and retain them as employees. According to tướng the American Health Care Association, in 2002, there was a turnover rate for this occupation in nursing homes of 71% per year. CNAs earned a median hourly wage of only $10.04 in 2004 which is slightly higher than thở other occupations such as grocery cashiers ($7.90 in 2004) and fast food cooks ($7.07 in 2004). They also receive very few fringe benefits. Approximately 16% of CNAs vì thế not have health insurance provided by their firms. Inadequate training provided to tướng the CNAs in addition to tướng low levels of education also can affect job tenure within their position, causing a lack of opportunities to tướng grow and learn new material. Because of the reasons above, the position of CNA is also considered a dead-end occupation.[13]

Temporary employment/short-term contracts[edit]

In Europe, temporary employment is utilized frequently and represents the heart of political and economic debates. These temporary contracts and job positions allow an increase in labor market flexibility and providing employers with the ability to tướng dodge strict government regulations regarding the firing and hiring of employees as well as avoid regulations concerning fringe and pay benefits. Previous research confirmed that a wage penalty existed with the utilization of fixed-term contracts. This wage penalty was applied to tướng young workers entering an occupation with low human capital investments and lasted for the first few years of employment but could lead to tướng a pay off if the worker is viewed as highly productive in their occupation when pursuing a permanent contract. This is known as the learning effect and can be quite large. This sườn of contract can be a considered a dead-end job if the worker is unable to tướng meet the demands necessary by the employer or company. A study was performed within the United Kingdom and Germany on the topic of temporary employment conducted by fixed-term contracts. The study indicated that for fixed-term contracts, some jobs consisting of a fixed-term contract can lead to tướng permanent employment with good benefits and exist as a stepping stone, while others lead employees within a series of different fixed-term contracts and positions with little room for improvement which, in essence, is another sườn of a dead-end job.[14]

Xem thêm: ecosystem là gì

In countries such as Italy, Spain, and France, there is a dramatic increase of temporary positions and short-term contracts due to tướng the benefit of being able to tướng lắc off temporary employees without restrictions or incurring statutory redundancy payments. Because of this, the number of temporary workers within the workforce has doubled between the years of 1985 and 1997. Temporary jobs vì thế come at a cost. There is concern about lack of opportunities for career advancement for temporary workers in addition to tướng the quality of these types of occupations. Case study information has been discovered confirming that employer enthusiasm within the workplace has decreased due to tướng the utilization of temporary jobs with dead-end characteristics which resulted in low levels of motivation and retention of such employees within a firm.

A study was conducted by Alison L. Booth, Marco Francesconi and Jeff Frank which concluded that individuals participating in seasonal, casual or fixed-term employment report that they have not received the work-related training necessary for the occupation and experience lower levels of job satisfaction in comparison to tướng permanent ones. The study concluded that there is evidence that temporary jobs can be a stepping stone to tướng a permanent job within a firm. The median time within a temporary position before such a switch is between 18 months and 3 and a half years and depends upon the gender of the individual and the type of contract (whether it is a fixed-term or seasonal contract). Seasonal/casual positions yield very little chance of obtaining a permanent position and can be categorized as dead-end positions. Fixed-term contracts have a larger potential of being transitioned into a permanent one, however, males suffer a permanent earning loss during the transition in comparison to tướng males who started in a permanent position from the beginning. Females, however, within a fixed-term position fully catch up to tướng the wages of their permanent position counterparts.[15]


Since the 1970s, occupations within many industrialized nations such as the United States have become less secure. As the traditional job hierarchies within a firm deteriorate and companies downsize due to tướng unexpected circumstances such as a recession, or employer changes both involuntary and voluntary, the reduction in security in firms become more frequent. Instead of residing under one employer and being promoted within the one company, employees are climbing the corporate ladder by switching between employers. Because of this, many employees cannot expect to tướng reside within the same firm for the next 15 to tướng đôi mươi years. Based on research results conducted by Anne-Kathrin Kronberg within the Emory University, the externalization of job mobility affects gender disparities depending upon whether individuals work in bad or good occupations in addition to tướng whether they leave their firms voluntary or not. If an individual leaves a job voluntarily, then the gender gap closes the fastest within a benign occupation, while a dead-end job has stagnant results. If a worker leaves a job involuntarily, gender disparities run rẩy narrow within bad jobs. For good jobs, the gender gap closes initially but opens again swiftly in the 1990s. The study's definition of "good" or "bad" was whether the occupation provided pension plans and health insurance to tướng their employees in addition to tướng whether the individual's earnings were above the federal poverty threshold of 120 percent.[16]

Before 1990, individuals with disabilities were subject to tướng discrimination by being denied equal job opportunities, companies failing to tướng provide such individuals with reasonable accommodations, being assigned to tướng dead-end classified occupations and underutilization as a whole. The phrase an "individual with a disability" references a person who has either a mental or physical impairment that limits the ability to tướng perform one or several major life activities, or is regarded to tướng have or has had a record of an impairment or disability. On July 26, 1992, the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) was implemented and took effect to tướng assist individuals with disabilities by eliminating such employment barriers ví that they could fully participate in society and receive the same job opportunities that any other individual would receive. [17]

Psychological effects[edit]

One possible side effect of being stationed in a dead-end job for too long is the feeling of a lack of motivation and boredom.[18] Another possible side effect can be a short temper, replacing the patience that the worker once had when first starting the position. The lack of motivation experienced by individuals within a dead-end job can lead to tướng discouragement in the direction of their career path and can cause their level of performance to tướng suffer by either taking longer to tướng complete a certain activity or task and/or making more mistakes than thở usual due to tướng a lack of concentration.[4]

All of these characteristics can lead an individual to tướng an occupational crisis state. Occupational crisis consists of an individual demonstrating a state of mixed negative thoughts and emotions consisting mainly of work-related anxiety and frustration, feelings of reaching a dead-end within their career, negative interpersonal relationships and experiences within the workplace, and the consistent consideration of a career change due to tướng making previous incorrect job choices.

The Occupational Crisis Scale was created to tướng assist employees in identifying whether they were in a dead-end in their career. Three studies were performed to tướng confirm the validity of the Occupational Crisis Scale with an assorted number of Finnish workers (53% of them female) in various occupations such as police officers, firemen, private caretakers, labor welfare advisors and nurses. 58% of individuals were ranked within the occupation crisis state based on this study and a preliminary study amongst vocation counseling clients.

To remedy these psychological issues stemming from dead-end jobs and their related work stress, vocational help can be obtained ví that problems vì thế not continue to tướng escalate or accumulate. For some individuals, more time may be needed to tướng consider what they desire in their work life and the utilization of occasional sick time, education or vacation could help remedy their occupational crisis state. For other workers, it may require a change in their work tasks, occupation within their firm, or a completely different job for them to tướng experience a more satisfying life. Vocational help can also assist workers with developing better coping skills which aid the individuals in handling their stresses and anxieties in all facets of life.[19]

Xem thêm: diversify là gì

See also[edit]

  • Bullshit job
  • Critique of work
  • Freeter
  • McJob
  • Precariat
  • Underemployment
  • Tang ping ("lying flat")
  • Working poor


  1. ^ Elisabeth Deffner (2013-01-01). "How to tướng Get Unstuck". Vibrant Life. ProQuest 1266034021.
  2. ^ a b MARY ELLEN SLAYTER (2016-02-18). "Know when to tướng fold 'em at a dead-end job". Administrative Professional Today. Retrieved 2018-03-12.
  3. ^ Gillian Flynn (1995-03-01). "Are you in a dead-end job?". Personnel Journal.
  4. ^ a b Jenny McCune (2006-04-01). "Are You In A Dead-End Job?". OfficePro. ProQuest 209899886.
  5. ^ Jacquelyn Smith (2012-08-12). "How to tướng Tell if You're Stuck in a Dead-End Job, And What To Do If You Are". Forbes.
  6. ^ Lindsey Waddell (2003-02-01). "BY NO MEANS A DEAD-END JOB". Internal Auditor. Retrieved 2018-03-11.
  7. ^ Carol Bellamy (1979-01-01). "A Career in the Judiciary". Women Lawyers Journal. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
  8. ^ Howard Yale Lederman (2017-05-01). "The National Labor Relations Board's Redefined Joint Employer Standard is Justified and Necessary". Michigan Bar Journal. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
  9. ^ "How to tướng reroute out of a dead-end job". NBC News. Retrieved 2011-10-01.
  10. ^ Now, Careers (2011-07-03). "How to tướng exit dead-end job rut". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2011-10-01.
  11. ^ Ian McMillan (1999-03-09). "Mental health nurses say they're in 'a dead over job'". Nursing Standard. ProQuest 219824186.
  12. ^ J David Hirst (2000-10-01). "A medical "dead end" job? The recruitment and career progression of the Edwardian School medical officer". Medical History. ProQuest 229687616.
  13. ^ Joshua M. Wiener, PhD, Marie R. Squillace, PhD, Wayne L. Anderson, PhD, Galina Khatutsky, MS (2009-04-06). "Why Do They Stay? Job Tenure Among Certified Nursing Assistants in Nursing Homes". The Gerontologist. 49 (2): 198–210. doi:10.1093/geront/gnp027. PMID 19363015.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. ^ Dimitris Pavlopoulos (2013-12-01). "Starting Your Career With a Fixed-Term Job: Stepping-Stone or "Dead End"?". Review of Social Economy. SSRN 1498543.
  15. ^ Alison L. Booth, Marco Francesconi and Jeff Frank (2002-06-01). "Temporary Jobs: Stepping Stones or Dead Ends?" (PDF). The Economic Journal. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
  16. ^ Anne-Kathrin Kronberg (2013-06-01). "Stay or Leave? Externalization of Job Mobility and the Effect on the U.S. Gender Earnings Gap, 1979-2009". Social Forces. JSTOR 43287495.
  17. ^ Lawrence D. Humphrey (1992-01-01). "Understanding an Employer's Obligation to tướng Provide Reasonable Accommodations to tướng Disable Individuals". Boston Bar Journal. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
  18. ^ Charles S. Lauer (2007-10-29). "Be Remarkable". Modern Healthcare. ProQuest 212021482.
  19. ^ Merja Hutri (1995-04-26). "When Careers Reach a Dead End: Identification of Occupational Crisis States". Journal of Psychology. 130 (4): 383–399. doi:10.1080/00223980.1996.9915026. PMID 8756272.

Further reading[edit]

  • Charles C. Brown (1982), "Dead-end Jobs and Youth Unemployment", in Richard B. Freeman; David A. Wise (eds.), The Youth Labor Market Problem: Its Nature, Causes, and Consequences, University of Chicago Press, pp. 427–452, commended here by Ronald G. Ehrenberg
  • Helen Connolly, Peter Gottschalk (December 2001). "Stepping Stone Jobs: Theory and Evidence" (PDF).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  • Randy Hodson; Teresa A. Sullivan (2012). The Social Organization of Work (5th ed.). ISBN 9781111300951.
  • Stacie A. Bosley (2004). "Dead-End Jobs Or Stepping Stones? The Long-Run Consequences Of Early Industry And Occupation". Working Papers.
  • Molly Dahl, Thomas DeLeire, Jonathan Schwabish (April 2009). "Stepping Stone or Dead End? The Effect of the EITC on Earnings Growth" (PDF).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  • Alison L. Booth, Marco Francesconi, Jeff Frank (October 2000). "Temporary Jobs: Stepping Stones or Dead Ends?".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  • Giovanni S. F. Bruno, Floro Ernesto Caroleo, Orietta Dessy (July 2012). "Stepping Stones versus Dead End Jobs: Exits from Temporary Contracts in Italy after the 2003 Reform".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  • Howard Yale Lederman (May 2017). "The National Labor Relations Board's Redefined Joint Employer Standard is Justified and Necessary".
  • Anne-Kathrin Kronberg (June 2013). "Stay or Leave? Externalization of Job Mobility and the Effect on the U.S. Gender Earnings Gap, 1979-2009". Social Forces. 91 (4): 1117–1146. doi:10.1093/sf/sot041. JSTOR 43287495. S2CID 154366550.
  • Jenny McCune (April 2006). "Are You In A Dead-End Job?" (Document). ProQuest 209899886.
  • Jacquelyn Smith (August 2012). "How to tướng Tell if You're Stuck in a Dead-End Job, And What To Do If You Are". Forbes.
  • Lawrence D. Humphrey (January 1992). "Understanding an Employer's Obligation to tướng Provide Reasonable Accommodations to tướng Disable Individuals".
  • Joshua M. Wiener, Marie R. Squillace, Wayne L. Anderson, Galina Khatutsky (April 2009). "Why Do They Stay? Job Tenure Among Certified Nursing Assistants in Nursing Homes". The Gerontologist. 49 (2): 198–210. doi:10.1093/geront/gnp027. PMID 19363015.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  • J David Hirst (October 2000). "A medical "dead end" job? The recruitment and career progression of the Edwardian School medical officer" (Document). ProQuest 229687616.