hawk là gì

Adult Eurasian goshawk
Scientific classification




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Sharp-shinned hawk, a small thành viên of the Accipitrinae subfamily

Hawks are birds of prey of the family Accipitridae. They are widely distributed and are found on all continents except Antarctica.[1]

  • The subfamily Accipitrinae includes goshawks, sparrowhawks, sharp-shinned hawks and others. This subfamily are mainly woodland birds with short broad wings, long tails and high visual acuity. They hunt by dashing suddenly from a concealed perch.[2]
  • In America, members of the Buteo group are also called hawks; this group is called buzzards in other parts of the world. Generally, buteos have broad wings and sturdy builds. They are relatively larger-winged, shorter-tailed and fly further distances in open areas kêu ca accipiters. Buteos descend or pounce on their prey rather kêu ca hunting in a fast horizontal pursuit.

The terms accipitrine hawk and buteonine hawk are used vĩ đại distinguish between the types in regions where hawk applies vĩ đại both. The term "true hawk" is sometimes used for the accipitrine hawks in regions where buzzard is preferred for the buteonine hawks.

All these groups are members of the family Accipitridae, which includes the hawks and buzzards as well as kites, harriers and eagles. To confuse things further, some authors use "hawk" generally for any small vĩ đại medium Accipitrid that is not an eagle.[3]

A Red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), a thành viên of the Buteo group

The common names of some birds include the term "hawk", reflecting traditional usage rather kêu ca taxonomy. For example, some people may Điện thoại tư vấn an osprey a "fish hawk" or a peregrine falcon a "duck hawk".


Falconry was once called "hawking" and any bird used for falconry could be referred vĩ đại as a hawk.[4]

Aristotle listed eleven types of ἱέρακες (hierakes, hawks, singular ἱέραξ hierax): aisalōn (merlin), asterias, hypotriorchēs, kirkos, leios, perkos, phassophonos, phrynologos, pternis, spizias, and triorchēs. Pliny numbered sixteen kinds of hawks, but named only aigithos, epileios, kenchrēïs (kestrel), kybindis, and triorchēs (buzzard).[5]


Accipiter group[edit]

The accipitrine hawks generally hunt birds as their primary prey. They are also called "hen-hawks", or "wood-hawks" because of their woodland habitat.

The subfamily Accipitrinae contains Accipiter; it also contains genera Micronisus (Gabar goshawk), Urotriorchis (long-tailed hawk), and Megatriorchis (Doria's goshawk). Melierax (chanting goshawks) may be included in the subfamily, or given a subfamily of its own.

Erythrotriorchis (the red and chestnut-shouldered goshawks) is traditionally included in Accipitridae, but is possibly a convergent genus from an unrelated group (see red goshawk taxonomy).

Buteo group[edit]

The "Buteo group" includes genera Buteo, Parabuteo, Geranoetus, and most of Leucopternis. Members of this group have also been called "hawk-buzzards".[6]

Proposed new genera Morphnarchus, Rupornis, and Pseudastur are formed from members of Buteo and Leucopternis.[7]

The "Buteogallus group" are also called hawks, with the exception of the solitary eagles. Buteo is the type genus of the subfamily Buteoninae. Traditionally this subfamily also includes eagles and sea-eagles. Lerner and Mindell (2005) proposed placing those into separate subfamilies (Aquilinae, Haliaaetinae), leaving only the buteonine hawks/buzzards in Buteoninae.

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In February 2005, Canadian ornithologist Louis Lefebvre announced a method of measuring avian "IQ" by measuring their innovation in feeding habits.[8] Based on this scale, hawks were named among the most intelligent birds. The hawk is very intelligent towards humans and other hawks.[9]


Hawks, lượt thích most birds, are tetrachromats having four types of colour receptors in the eye. However, unlike most birds but similarly vĩ đại other diurnal raptors, most hawks cannot perceive ultraviolet light.[10] Other adaptations allow for the detection of polarised light or magnetic fields. This is due vĩ đại the large number of photoreceptors in the retina (up vĩ đại 1,000,000 per square milimet in Buteo, compared vĩ đại 200,000 in humans), a high number of nerves connecting these receptors vĩ đại the brain, and an indented fovea, which magnifies the central portion of the visual field.[11][12]


Like most birds, the hawk migrates in the autumn and the spring. Different types of hawks choose separate times in each season vĩ đại migrate. The autumn migrating season begins in August and ends mid-December. It has been studied that there are longer migration distances kêu ca others. The long-distance travelers tend vĩ đại begin in early autumn while the short distance travelers start much later. Thus, the longer the distance the earlier the bird begins its journey. There have been studies on the tốc độ and efficiency of the bird's migration that show that it is better for a hawk vĩ đại arrive at its destination as early as possible.[13] This is because the first bird that arrives has the first pick of mates, living area, food, and survival necessities. The more fat a bird has when it starts its migration, the better chance it has of making the trip safely. Kerlinger states that studies have shown that a bird has more toàn thân fat when it begins its migration, before it leaves, kêu ca when has arrived at its destination.[14]

One of the most important parts of the hawk's migration is the flight direction because the direction or path the bird chooses vĩ đại take could greatly affect its migration. The force of wind is a variable because it could either throw the bird off course or push it in the right direction, depending on the direction of the wind.[14] To ensure a safer journey, a hawk tries vĩ đại avoid any large bodies of water in the spring and fall by detouring around a lake or flying along a border.[15]

Hawkwatching is a citizen scientist activity that monitors hawk migration and provides data vĩ đại the scientific community.

Habitat and distribution[edit]

The red-tailed hawk is probably the most common hawk in North America.[16] Past observations have indicated that while hawks can easily adapt vĩ đại any surrounding, hawks prefer a habitat that is open. Hawks usually lượt thích vĩ đại live in places lượt thích deserts and fields, likely as it is easier vĩ đại find prey. As they are able vĩ đại live anywhere, they can be found in mountainous plains and tropical, moist areas. Hawks have been found in places such as Central America, the West Indies, and Jamaica.


Starting in the hawk's early life, it is fed by its parents until it leaves the nest.[17] The young hawk, while still in its fledgling phase, will leave its nest as early as six weeks old. Once the bird is older it begins vĩ đại hunt. The hawk kills its prey with its talons as opposed vĩ đại other predator birds, such as the falcon. The falcon uses its talons vĩ đại catch the prey but kills the small animal with its beak instead of its talons.[citation needed] The hawk's preferred time for hunting is usually just before nightfall when daylight lessens.[13] Although the hawk is known for being a violent predator, some are gentle and quiet.[citation needed] When it flies, the hawk flaps its wings rapidly, and then uses that momentum vĩ đại glide smoothly and gracefully through the air.[15]

The idea of flocking during migration has been closely analyzed, and it has been concluded that it is a commutative tool used by birds and other animals vĩ đại increase survival. It has become clear vĩ đại observers that a hawk traveling in a flock has a greater chance of survival kêu ca if it travelled alone. Another word used in the United States that has the same meaning as "flock", particularly in terms of groups of hawks, is "kettle".[14]: 215–16 


Hawks are known for their unique mating season. The method the hawk uses vĩ đại reproduce is different from most. The male and female will fly together in a circular motion. Once they reach a certain height, the male will dive toward the female and then they will raise back vĩ đại the height again. The two birds will repeat this until finally the male latches onto the female and they begin vĩ đại free-fall down vĩ đại earth. In one year, a female hawk will lắc about five eggs. Both the male and the female will cater and take care of the eggs for about a month until they hatch.[17] The male and the female create their nest before the mating season and improve it together during the nesting season. The two birds usually make their nest prior vĩ đại mating. Some species of hawks tend vĩ đại be monogamous and stay with the same mating partner their whole lives.[15]


Red-tailed hawk removing fur from a rodent before eating it, Mission Peak Regional Preserve, California

A hawk's diet is predictable and includes a variety of smaller animals. Some of these small animals include snakes, lizards, fish, mice, rabbits, squirrels, birds, and any other type of small game that is found on the ground.[17] More specifically, a red-shouldered hawk likes vĩ đại eat smaller birds lượt thích doves and bugs lượt thích grasshoppers and crickets.[15]

In culture[edit]

A war hawk, or simply hawk, is a term used in politics for somebody favoring war. The term reportedly originated during the 1810 debates in Congress over a possible war with Great Britain when Congressman John Randolph called the pro-war faction led by Henry Clay, the 'war-hawks'.[18]

Numerous sporting clubs, such as the Atlanta Hawks, the Hawthorn Hawks and the Malmö Redhawks, use the bird as an emblem. Miami University in Oxford, Ohio officially became known as the RedHawks in 1997 after formerly being known as the Redskins.

Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb holding a hawk in his darbar

Hawks are highly associated with Guru Gobind Singh in the Sikh community. According vĩ đại ornithologists, he is believed vĩ đại have kept a white Northern Goshawk. This is reflected in that the Northern Goshawk was made the official state bird of Punjab, India.[19][20][21][22]


  1. ^ "hawk | Types, Diet, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2022-07-25.
  2. ^ Campbell, B., Lack.E (2013) A Dictionary of Birds. p.273
  3. ^ Debus, Stephen J. S. (1990). The birds of prey of Australia: a field guide. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. pp. 12, 16, 62. ISBN 0-19-550624-3. Debus writes that the osprey is "a large aquatic hawk, with adaptations for catching fish by plunge-diving into water"; the elanid kites are "small, gull-like, grey-and-white hawks with Black forewing patches"; and, of the harriers, that the "hawks in this cosmopolitan genus ('circling hawk') are so-called because of their low harrying flight". But he refers vĩ đại the "typical or milvine kites" as "large kites", not hawks.
  4. ^ Little, William; Fowler, H. W.; Coulson, Jessie; Onions, C. T.; Friedrichsen, G. W. S. (1973) [1944]. "Hawk". The shorter Oxford English dictionary on historical principles (3 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-861-294-X. Any diurnal bird of prey used in Falconry ... In Nat. Hist., restricted vĩ đại a bird of the subfamily Accipitrinæ ... To chase or hunt game with a trained hawk; vĩ đại practise falconry. ... Thei hauke, thei hunt, thei thẻ, thei dice. Latimer [Hugh 1485? – 1555]
  5. ^ Arnott, W. Geoffrey (2007). "Hierax". Birds in the Ancient World from A vĩ đại Z. Routledge. ISBN 9781134556267.
  6. ^ "Hawk". The Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
  7. ^ Remsen, Van (August 2010). "Revise generic boundaries in the Buteo group. Proposal (460) vĩ đại the South American Classification Committee". Retrieved 22 June 2014.
  8. ^ EurekAlert! Public News List:Bird IQ test takes flight - Dr. Lefebvre's AAAS presentation - Feeding innovations and forebrain size in birds (Monday, February 21, 2005)Part of the symposium: Mind, Brain and Behavior
  9. ^ Morgan, James (23 April 2021). "What Are Hawks Afraid Of? [Which Animals Prey on Hawks?]". BirdWatchingBuzz. Retrieved January 4, 2022.
  10. ^ journals.biologists.com https://journals.biologists.com/jeb/article/216/10/1819/11547/Ultraviolet-sensitivity-and-colour-vision-in. Retrieved 2023-06-13.
  11. ^ "Hawks". beautyofbirds.com. Retrieved 2010-01-30.
  12. ^ Kirschbaum, Kari. "Family Accipitridae". AnimalDiversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 2010-01-30.
  13. ^ a b Heintzelman, Donald S. (1986). The Migration of Hawks. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 40.
  14. ^ a b c Kerlinger, Paul (1989). Flight Strategies of Migrating Hawks. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 57–58, 153.
  15. ^ a b c d Heintzelman, Donald S. (2004). Hawks & Owls in Eastern North America. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. pp. 96–98. ISBN 9780813533506.
  16. ^ "Red-tailed Hawk Overview, All About Birds, Cornell Lab of Ornithology". www.allaboutbirds.org. Retrieved 2023-03-30.
  17. ^ a b c "Red-Tailed Hawk". National Geographic. 11 November 2010. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  18. ^ p 156, "Fighting Words, From War, Rebellions, and Other Combative Capers by Christine Ammer.:
  19. ^ "Lost in flight: State bird of Punjab missing from the state!". Hindustan Times. 2017-09-14. Retrieved 2021-04-19.
  20. ^ "State Bird is BAAZ". Archived from the original on 14 July năm trước.
  21. ^ "Baj: The Hawk and the Sikhs | Harinder Singh | SikhRI Articles".
  22. ^ Dhavan, Purnima (2011). "When Sparrows Became Hawks". doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199756551.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-975655-1 – via ResearchGate.

External links[edit]

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Wikiquote has quotations related vĩ đại Hawks.

Look up hawk in Wiktionary, the không tính tiền dictionary.

  • Hawks and eagles (Accipitridae) information, videos, photos and sounds at the Internet Bird Collection
  • "Hawk" . Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
  • "Hawk" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 13 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 94–95.
  • "Hawk" . The New Student's Reference Work . 1914.