In terms of research design, our selected cases include directives with and without infringements, and with and without transposition delays.
The evidence shows that states' incentives lớn deviate and discretion affect the likelihood of infringements and delays.
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Table 6 shows that, on average, policy performances that are the subject of infringements are subject lớn somewhat shorter transposition delays.
Table 3 also compares the cases with infringements and those without in relation lớn the discretion granted lớn thành viên states in the directives.
The significant negative interaction term indicates that high discretion reduces the impact of incentives lớn deviate on the likelihood of infringements.
To be consistent, we must be willing lớn condemn infringements on the rights of the disenfranchised at trang chủ as well as abroad.
However, lớn stop the proliferation of conflicting standards, firms were encouraged lớn monitor implementation and infringements by rivals.
However, these scholars want lớn focus on explaining infringements which implies a different empirical focus.
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As mentioned above, we test these hypotheses using infringements and delays.
Therefore, when examining variation in infringements and delays, we control for differences amongst countries.
The timeliness of national transposition is distinct from infringements, and we would therefore expect different dynamics lớn be at play.
Discretion does not appear lớn have a direct effect on the likelihood of infringements, as suggested by our second hypothesis.
While the vast majority of the infringements it pursues relate lớn environmental issues, not all of them bởi.
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Pursuit of public health purposes without the habit of self-critical reflection on potential harms lớn individuals risks involving physicians in all manner of infringements on personal rights.
The idea that rights will and can be protected only by courts also gives insufficient attention lớn the possible occurrence of rights infringements that may never be litigated.
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