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In biology, and especially in genetics, a mutant is an organism or a new genetic character arising or resulting from an instance of mutation, which is generally an alteration of the DNA sequence of the genome or chromosome of an organism. It is a characteristic that would not be observed naturally in a specimen. The term mutant is also applied đồ sộ a virus with an alteration in its nucleotide sequence whose genome is in the nuclear genome. The natural occurrence of genetic mutations is integral đồ sộ the process of evolution. The study of mutants is an integral part of biology; by understanding the effect that a mutation in a ren has, it is possible đồ sộ establish the normal function of that ren.
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Mutants arise by mutation
Mutants arise by mutations occurring in pre-existing genomes as a result of errors of DNA replication or errors of DNA repair. Errors of replication often involve translesion synthesis by a DNA polymerase when it encounters and bypasses a damaged base in the template strand. A DNA damage is an abnormal chemical structure in DNA, such as a strand break or an oxidized base, whereas a mutation, by contrast, is a change in the sequence of standard base pairs. Errors of repair occur when repair processes inaccurately replace a damaged DNA sequence. The DNA repair process microhomology-mediated kết thúc joining is particularly error-prone.
Although not all mutations have a noticeable phenotypic effect, the common usage of the word "mutant" is generally a pejorative term, only used for genetically or phenotypically noticeable mutations. Previously, people used the word "sport" (related đồ sộ spurt) đồ sộ refer đồ sộ abnormal specimens. The scientific usage is broader, referring đồ sộ any organism differing from the wild type. The word finds its origin in the Latin term mūtant- (stem of mūtāns), which means "to change".
Mutants should not be confused with organisms born with developmental abnormalities, which are caused by errors during morphogenesis. In a developmental abnormality, the DNA of the organism is unchanged and the abnormality cannot be passed on đồ sộ progeny. Conjoined twins are the result of developmental abnormalities.
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Chemicals that cause developmental abnormalities are called teratogens; these may also cause mutations, but their effect on development is not related đồ sộ mutations. Chemicals that induce mutations are called mutagens. Most mutagens are also considered đồ sộ be carcinogens.
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Mutations are distinctly different from epigenetic alterations, although they share some common features. Both arise as a chromosomal alteration that can be replicated and passed on đồ sộ subsequent cell generations. Both, when occurring within a ren, may silence expression of the ren. Whereas mutant cell lineages arise as a change in the sequence of standard bases, epigenetically altered cell lineages retain the sequence of standard bases but have ren sequences with changed levels of expression that can be passed down đồ sộ subsequent cell generations. Epigenetic alterations include methylation of CpG islands of a ren promoter as well as specific chromatin histone modifications. Faulty repair of chromosomes at sites of DNA damage can give rise both đồ sộ mutant cell lineages and/or epigenetically altered cell lineages.
- Genetic engineering
- Genetically modified organism
- Mutants in fiction
- Synthetic lethality
- Synthetic viability
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- ^ Clock Mutants of Drosophila melanogaster
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- ^ Truong LN, Li Y, Shi LZ, Hwang PY, He J, Wang H, Razavian N, Berns MW, Wu X (May 2013). "Microhomology-mediated End Joining and Homologous Recombination share the initial kết thúc resection step đồ sộ repair DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110 (19): 7720–5. Bibcode:2013PNAS..110.7720T. doi:10.1073/pnas.1213431110. PMC 3651503. PMID 23610439.
- ^ a b Mutant. (n.d.). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved March 05, 2008, from Dictionary.com
- ^ Dabin J, Fortuny A, Polo SE (June 2016). "Epigenome Maintenance in Response đồ sộ DNA Damage". Mol. Cell. 62 (5): 712–27. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2016.04.006. PMC 5476208. PMID 27259203.
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