summer vacation là gì

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The term summer vacation or summer break refers vĩ đại a school break in the summer between school years and the break in the school academic year. Students are off anywhere between two weeks vĩ đại three and a half months. Depending on the country and district, staff might be partially or fully excluded.

In Spain, Portugal, the Republic of Ireland, Italy, Greece, Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, Lebanon, Romania and Russia, the summer break is normally three months, compared vĩ đại two vĩ đại six weeks (sometimes 3 months) in nước Australia, Brazil, the United Kingdom, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany and Mexico.

Criticisms and support[edit]

The research around the impact of summer vacation is mixed.[1] “Summer learning loss” (or “summer slide”)[2] is the perceived loss of learning students experience due vĩ đại interrupted education, but the exact consequences of extended breaks is unclear. Some research highlights that school holidays can be stressful periods for children from low-income families.[3]

By country[edit]



In Bolivia, summer vacation runs from early December vĩ đại early February[4] (2 months).


Canada's summer vacation usually lasts from late June vĩ đại Early September.


In Colombia, summer vacation varies. Colombia has an equatorial climate (see Climate of Colombia) and schools run rẩy two different calendars. Public schools and some private schools run rẩy "Calendar A" which has a short break from mid-June vĩ đại early-July. Only some private schools run rẩy "Calendar B" in which there is a long vacation from mid or late-June vĩ đại late-August or early-September.[5] One of the reasons for private schools vĩ đại run rẩy "Calendar B" is vĩ đại adapt their calendar vĩ đại match the calendars of international schools (of the Northern Hemisphere) for summer courses and academic exchanges.[6]


In Suriname, summer vacation usually starts in mid-August and ends in early-October.[7] In 2012, a change of summer vacation was proposed by several legislators having summer vacation the same time as the Caribbean Community.[7] The proposed plan is summer vacation starts from mid-August and ends in early-October.[7]

United States[edit]

In the United States, depending on the region, summer break is approximately two vĩ đại three months, with students typically finishing the school year in late-May or early-June and starting the new year in mid-late August or early-September. About 4 percent of public schools in the U.S. use a balanced calendar that operates year-round with a shorter summer break.[8]

The modern school calendar has its roots in 19th-century school-reform movements seeking standardization between urban and rural areas. Up until the mid-19th century, most schools were open for a winter and summer term. As individual schools merged into school districts and bureaucracies emerged vĩ đại manage the newly formed school districts, school leaders and politicians identified a need vĩ đại standardize calendars across regions. This standardization was related vĩ đại the emerging tax structures, laws around compulsory education, as well as a general sentiment that school should be an essential component of American childhood.[9]

As the calendar was standardized across regions, school leaders took cues from a variety of factors, including attendance rates and the difficulty cooling school buildings. Many upper-class families left the thành phố for cooler climates in the northeast during hot summer months, and as such, schools cancelled their summer sessions due vĩ đại low daily attendance. As train travel became more affordable, middle-class families followed similar patterns, keeping their children home page during the hottest months of the year or going away for a summer vacation.[10]

Additionally, many school leaders advocated for breaks sánh that students and teachers could rest their brains. Many 19th- and early 20th-century Americans educators believed that too much learning in hot weather was bad for one's health and could result in heat exhaustion and injury, particularly for younger children, whose minds were still developing.[11] The extended summer break was seen as a way for children and their teachers vĩ đại rest and recover. In many places, teachers would use the summer months for their own learning and professional development, including participating in seminars and courses lượt thích those held at Chautauqua.

While the origins of the summer holiday break are often believed vĩ đại be rooted in agriculture and the idea children were needed vĩ đại assist with planting and harvesting crops, this is inaccurate. Most crops were planted in the spring and harvested in the fall.[12][13]



In India, summer vacation lasts for around 1 month, the dates of which the Government decides. Typical summer vacation is from late March vĩ đại early June.


In nhật bản most businesses close for a few days in August around Obon, while schools close for a few weeks (usually half of July and august)


The Great Vacation is the name in Israel for the summer vacation used around the world at the over of the school year in educational institutions. The big holiday takes place in most countries of the world in the summer months of July and August. During the holidays, there are no classes in the schools, but many go vĩ đại camps and summer camps during the vacation.


Select universities have adapted the school year schedule of other countries, starting the school year in September and having the summer holidays from June vĩ đại August.[14][15] Some of the schools that complied are still in transition, their academic calendars still beginning in July, others in August, with their summer vacations adjusted accordingly.[16]


New Zealand[edit]

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In New Zealand, the school holidays typically start in early vĩ đại mid-December, and over in late January or early February, which is usually 6–8 weeks.[17]



The summer holidays for primary and secondary education in Flanders run rẩy from 1 July vĩ đại 31 August. These are not always whole weeks. In Wallonia and French-speaking education, the summer holidays start in the second week of July, and lessons are also resumed in the last week of August. The school holidays in French-speaking education have been reformed from the 2022–2023 school year, in Flanders the two-month summer holiday will be maintained. At universities, colleges and education for social advancement, the holidays for students usually last a little longer. They start in the course of September, and the exams are already at the beginning of June. For companies and public administrations, the most popular period is the over of July - beginning of August, coinciding with the construction holiday. However, there is a tendency vĩ đại keep shops, services and businesses open during the summer holidays, albeit with a more limited staffing. The employees and civil servants must then agree on a rotation vĩ đại take vacation.


In Croatia, school year finishes at 21 June, starting again on the first Monday of September, but if it is 1st or 2nd of September, then school year will start 7 days later.[18] Until school year 2018./2019., school was over between 10th and 15 June, but with same starting date.[19] Students of last year of secondary school finish school year between 21st and 26 May, but they have national exams during whole June, called "matura".[20]

Czech Republic[edit]

In the Czech Republic, summer holiday begins on July 1 and ends on August 31 (2 months).[21]


In the Federal Republic of Germany, school holidays are phối by the 16 state governments and are mandatory for all schools in primary and secondary education. For the summer vacation in particular, the start and over dates are coordinated among states and somewhat rotate, sánh the local school year varies in length. This roster has been introduced in the 1970s vĩ đại better distribute demand for khách sạn rooms and holiday homes throughout peak season.[22]

The summer vacation lasts for six weeks and up vĩ đại three days. It usually includes 1 August, which is the formal start date of the school year, but this will be close vĩ đại the over for some states and close vĩ đại the start for others. This amounts vĩ đại about half of the total school holidays, which also include up vĩ đại two weeks each in autumn, winter (around Christmas) and spring (around Easter).


In Iceland, the duration of the summer vacation can vary from one school vĩ đại another. Typically students start their summer vacation during the first week of June and return vĩ đại school in the fourth week of August.[23]


In the Republic of Ireland, most secondary schools start summer holidays at the over of May or the start of June. However, Junior and Leaving Certificate exams will take place during June. Schools will usually open again at the over of August vĩ đại the start of September. Primary schools in the Republic of Ireland are sixteen days longer, sánh they start their summer holiday at the over of June but vì thế not return until the first week of September.[24] Private schools follow the same pattern.


The summer holiday has existed in the Netherlands since at least 1830. The summer holiday takes place in the months of July, August and September, although it depends on the region in which you live whether September is also part of the summer holiday period. In the Netherlands, students get six weeks of vacation; this also applies in the Caribbean Netherlands. The government has spread the holidays over three regions: the northern, central and southern Netherlands. There is a two-week difference between the start of the holiday in the first region and that in the last region. The summer holidays will start in 2023, the Central Netherlands is the first region vĩ đại be affected, on July 8 and the over date of the school holidays is August 27 for the South of the Netherlands. Universities will resume their activities at the over of August. In politics, the summer recess officially ends on Prinsjesdag, the third Tuesday in September. The heart of the summer holiday is the so-called construction holiday: three weeks at the over of July and the beginning of August. Many people travel vĩ đại a tourist area during the summer holidays. Campsites and holiday homes are very popular; outside the Netherlands, France is the favorite destination.


In Romania, summer vacation usually starts in mid-June and ends on the second Sunday of September (3 months).[25] Since 2022, though, the over date was moved vĩ đại the first Sunday of September.[26]

For the 8th grade, summer break starts a week earlier before everyone else, whereas for the 12th (day) and 13th grades (evening and reduced frequentation) it starts 2 weeks earlier. For students attending the technological branch of secondary education, as well as those attending vocational and post-secondary education (with a few exceptions), summer vacation starts 1–2 weeks after everyone else.[26]


In Slovakia, Last day in school is usually the 30th of June and the first day in school after the vacation is usually the 2nd of September unless the 2nd of September is Thursday, in that case schools open on the 5th of September.[27]


In Slovenia, summer vacations are 9 weeks long. Last day in school is traditionally always on 24th June, with earlier over only in case if Saturday or Sunday comes on that day. And the day of school traditionally always starts on 1st September, or day or two later if it comes on Saturday or Sunday.


In Spain, the school year finishes in mid vĩ đại late June and begins in early vĩ đại mid-September. Vacation varies by region but often includes a family vacation vĩ đại lower temperatures in the cooler regions in the north of Spain, or south or east vĩ đại the Mediterranean beaches.[28]


In Switzerland, summer vacation varies in each canton. As an example, in Zürich, it lasts five weeks and between mid-July and mid-August.[29] In Ticino, it lasts about ten weeks between late June and early September.[30]

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See also[edit]

  • Summer camp
  • Summer school
  • School holiday
  • Academic term
  • Dog days


  1. ^ Polikoff, David M. Quinn and Morgan (2017-09-14). "Summer learning loss: What is it, and what can we vì thế about it?". Brookings. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  2. ^ The summer slide: what we know and can vì thế about summer learning loss. Alexander, Karl L.; Pitcock, Sarah; Boulay, Matthew. Thủ đô New York, NY. năm nhâm thìn. ISBN 978-0-8077-5799-4. OCLC 957134420.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) CS1 maint: others (link)
  3. ^ Stewart, Hilary (2018). "The cost of school holidays for children from low income families". Childhood. 25 (4): 516–529. doi:10.1177/0907568218779130. PMC 6210572. PMID 30473595.
  4. ^ "Bolivia Education. Bolivia School. Education in Bolivia. School in Bolivia".
  5. ^ "Calendario hắn Jornada Escolar - Ministerio de Educación Nacional de Colombia".
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  10. ^ Gold, Kenneth (Spring 2002). "From vacation vĩ đại Summer School: The Transformation of Summer Education in Thủ đô New York City, 1894–1915". History of Education Quarterly. 42 (1): 18–49. doi:10.1111/j.1748-5959.2002.tb00099.x. S2CID 143153012.
  11. ^ Weiss, Joel; Robert S. Brown (December 2003). "Telling Tales Over Time: Constructing and Deconstructing the School Calendar". Teachers College Record. 105 (9): 1720–1757. doi:10.1046/j.1467-9620.2003.00307.x.
  12. ^ Lieszkovszky, Ida (2011-08-10). "Six Reasons Students Get Summer Off (And The Agrarian Calendar Isn't One of Them)". IdeaStream. National Public Radio. Retrieved 2018-06-02.
  13. ^ de Melker, Saskia; Weber, Sam (2014-09-07). "Agrarian roots? Think again. Debunking the myth of summer vacation's origins". PBS NewsHour. PBS. Retrieved 2018-06-02.
  14. ^ Poca, Ricky (7 January 2014). "September start for school year?". Inquirer News. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  15. ^ Ong G, Flores H (5 March 2014). "Public elementary, high schools will still follow June–March calendar". Retrieved 26 May 2018. Luistro said only a few schools, mostly higher education institutions, have decided vĩ đại move their school opening.
  16. ^ Elemia, Camille (23 May 2017). "Escudero wants synchronized opening of classes by 2018". Rappler. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  17. ^ "New Zealand Public Holidays, School Holidays, Special Events and Daylight Saving Dates".
  18. ^ (2019-04-28). "Školski kalendar za 2019./2020. godinu s praznicima za učenike". Kalendar školske godine s praznicima 2022./23. Sve o upisima u srednju školu, regres, kalkulatori, pravilnici, zakoni (in Croatian). Retrieved 2023-04-06.
  19. ^ "ŠKOLSKA GODINA năm ngoái./2016. - ŠKOLSKA GODINA - Lukin portal za djecu i obitelj - Dječje pjesme i pjesmice, igre, zagonetke, priče, basne, bajke, crtići, zanimljivosti, igrice, brojalice i bojanke za djecu". Retrieved 2023-04-06.
  20. ^ "Državna matura", Wikipedija (in Croatian), 2023-01-06, retrieved 2023-04-06
  21. ^ Parlament České republiky (2004-09-24). "Zákon 561/2004 Sb. o předškolním, základním, středním, vyšším odborném a jiném vzdělávání (školský zákon): § 24 Školní rok". Ministerstvo vnitra České republiky. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
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  27. ^ Národná rada Slovenskej republiky (2008-07-02). "Zákon 245/2008 Z.z. o výchove a vzdelávaní (školský zákon): § 150 Organizácia školského roka". Ministerstvo spravodlivosti Slovenskej republiky. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
  28. ^ Bennett, Annie (2016-02-05). "Spain summer holidays guide". The Telegraph.
  29. ^ CH--Bern, psc Informatik. "Schulferien Stadt Zürich 2017".
  30. ^ CH--Bern, psc Informatik. "Schulferien Kanton Tessin 2017".