A viral video is a đoạn Clip that becomes popular through a viral process of Internet sharing, typically through đoạn Clip sharing websites such as YouTube as well as social truyền thông and gmail. For a đoạn Clip to tướng be shareable or spreadable, it must focus on the social logics and cultural practices that have enabled and popularized these new platforms.
Viral videos may be serious, and some are deeply emotional, but many more are centered on entertainment and humorous nội dung. Notable early examples include televised comedy sketches, such as The Lonely Island's "Lazy Sunday" and "Dick in a Box", Numa Numa videos, The Evolution of Dance, Chocolate Rain on YouTube; and web-only productions such as I Got a Crush... on Obama. Some eyewitness events have also been caught on đoạn Clip and have "gone viral" such as the Battle at Kruger.
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One commentator called the Kony 2012 đoạn Clip the most viral đoạn Clip in history (about 34,000,000 views in three days and 100,000,000 views in six days), but "Gangnam Style" (2012) received one billion views in five months and was the most viewed đoạn Clip on YouTube from 2012 until "Despacito" (2017).
Videos were shared long before YouTube or even the Internet by word-of-mouth, film festivals, VHS tapes, and even to tướng fill time gaps during the early days of cable. Perhaps the earliest was Reefer Madness, a 1936 "educational" film that circulated under several different titles. It was rediscovered by Keith Stroup, founder of NORML, who circulated prints of the film around college film festivals in the 1970s. The company who produced the prints, New Line Cinema, was sánh successful they began producing their own films. The most controversial was perhaps a clip from a newscast from Portland, Oregon in November 1970. In the clip, the disposal of a beached whale carcass by dynamite is documented, including the horrific aftermath of falling mist and chunks since the exclusion zone was not big enough. The exploding whale story obtained urban legend status in the Northwest and gained new interest in 1990 after Dave Barry wrote a humorous column about the sự kiện, leading to tướng copies being distributed over bulletin board systems around 1994.
The "humorous trang chủ movie" genre dates back at least to tướng 1963, when the TV series "Your Funny, Funny Films" debuted. The series showcased amusing film clips, mostly shot on 8mm equipment by amateurs. The idea was revived in 1989 with America's Funniest trang chủ Videos, a series described by an ABC executive as a one-time "reality-based filler special" that was inspired by a segment of a Japanese variety show, Fun With Ken and Kaito Chan, borrowing clips from various Japanese trang chủ đoạn Clip shows as well. Now[timeframe?] the longest-running primetime entertainment show in the history of ABC, the show's format includes showing clips of trang chủ videos sent in to tướng the show's committee, and then the clips are voted on by a live filmed audience, with the winners awarded a monetary prize.
During the internet's public infancy, the 1996 Seinfeld episode "The Little Kicks" addresses the distribution of a viral đoạn Clip through non-online, non-broadcast means. It concludes with the citizens of Thành Phố New York City having individually witnessed Elaine's terrible nhảy đầm via a bootleg copy of a feature film, establishing that the nhảy đầm footage had effectively gone viral.
Viral videos began circulating as animated GIFs small enough to tướng be uploaded to tướng websites over dial-up Internet access or through gmail as attachments in the early 1990s. Videos were also spread on message boards, P2P tệp tin sharing sites, and even coverage from mainstream news networks on television. Two of the most successful viral videos of the early mạng internet era were "The Spirit of Christmas" and "Dancing Baby". "The Spirit of Christmas" surfaced in 1995, spread through bootleg copies on VHS and on the mạng internet, as well as an AVI tệp tin on the PlayStation game disc for Tiger Woods 99, later leading to tướng a recall. The popularity of the videos led to tướng the creation of the television series South Park after it was picked up by Comedy Central. "Dancing Baby", a 3D-rendered nhảy đầm baby đoạn Clip made in 1996 by the creators of Character Studio for 3 chiều Studio MAX, became something of a mid-late 1990s cultural icon in part due to tướng its exposure on worldwide commercials, editorials about Character Studio, and the popular television series Ally McBeal. The đoạn Clip may have first spread when Ron Lussier, the animator who cleaned up the raw animation, began passing the đoạn Clip around his workplace, LucasArts.
Later distribution of viral videos on the mạng internet before YouTube, which was created in 2005 and bought by Google in 2006, were mostly through websites dedicated to tướng hosting humorous nội dung, such as Newgrounds and YTMND, although message boards such as eBaum's World and Something Awful were also instrumental. Notably, some nội dung creators hosted their nội dung on their own websites, such as Joel Veitch's site for his band Rather Good, which hosted quirky Flash videos for the band's songs; the most popular was "We Like the Moon", whose viral popularity on the mạng internet prompted Quiznos to tướng parody the tuy nhiên for a commercial. The most famous self-hosted trang chủ of viral videos is perhaps Homestar Runner, launched in 2000 and still running. The introduction of social truyền thông such as Facebook and Twitter has created even more avenues for videos to tướng go viral. More recently, there has been a surge in viral videos on đoạn Clip sharing sites such as YouTube, partially because of the availability of affordable digital cameras. Beginning in December năm ngoái, YouTube introduced a "trending" tab to tướng alert users to tướng viral videos using an algorithm based on comments, views, "external references", and even location. The feature reportedly does not use viewing history to tướng serve up related nội dung, and the nội dung may be curated by YouTube.
There are several ways to tướng gauge whether a đoạn Clip has "gone viral". The statistic perhaps most mentioned is number of views, and as sharing has become easier, the threshold requirement of sheer number of views has increased. YouTube personality Kevin Nalty (known as Nalts) recalls on his blog: "A few years ago, a đoạn Clip could be considered 'viral' if it hit a million views", but says as of 2011, only "if it gets more than vãn 5 million views in a 3–7-day period" can it be considered "viral". To compare, 2004's Numa Numa received two million hits on Newgrounds in its first three months (a figure explained in a năm ngoái article as "a staggering number for the time").
Nalts also posits three other considerations: buzz, parody, and longevity, which are more complex ways of judging a viral video's views. Buzz addresses the heart of the issue; the more a đoạn Clip is shared, the more discussion the đoạn Clip creates both online and offline. What he emphasizes is notable is that the more buzz a đoạn Clip gets, the more views it gets. A study on viral videos by Carnegie Mellon University found that the popularity of the uploader affected whether a đoạn Clip would become viral, and having the đoạn Clip shared by a popular source such as a celebrity or a news channel also increases buzz. It is also part of the algorithm YouTube uses to tướng predict popular videos. Parodies, spoofs and spin-offs often indicate a popular đoạn Clip, with long-popular đoạn Clip view counts given with original đoạn Clip view counts as well as additional view counts given for the parodies. Longevity indicates if a đoạn Clip has remained part of the Zeitgeist.
Reasons for popularity
Due to tướng their societal impact and marketability, viral videos attract attention in both advertising and academia, which try to tướng trương mục for the reason viral videos are spread and what will make a đoạn Clip go viral. Several theories exist.
A viral video's longevity often relies on a hook which draws the audience to tướng watch it. The hook, often a memorable phrase or moment, is able to tướng become a part of the viral đoạn Clip culture after being shown repeatedly. The hooks, or key signifiers, are not able to tướng be predicted before the videos become viral. The early view pattern of a viral đoạn Clip can be used to tướng forecast its peak day in future. Notable examples include "All your base are belong to tướng us", based on the poorly translated đoạn Clip game Zero Wing, which was first distributed in 2000 as a GIF animation and became popular for the grammatically incorrect hook of its title, and Don Hertzfeldt's 2000 Academy Awards Best Animated Short Film nomination "Rejected" with the quotable hooks "I am a banana" and "My spoon is too big!" Another early đoạn Clip was the Flash animation "The End of the World", created by Jason Windsor and uploaded to tướng Albino Blacksheep in 2003, with quotable hooks such as "but I'm le tired" and "WTF, mates?"
Rosanna Guadagno, a social psychologist at the University of Texas at Dallas, found in a study that people preferred to tướng share a funny đoạn Clip rather than vãn one of a man treating his own spider bite, and overall they were more likely to tướng share any đoạn Clip that evoked an intense emotional response. Two professors at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania also found that uplifting stories were more likely to tướng be shared on the Thành Phố New York Times' trang web site than vãn disheartening ones.
Others postulate that sharing is driven by ego in order to tướng build up an online persona for oneself. Chartbeat, a company that measures online traffic, compiled data comparing the amount of time spent reading an article and the number of times it was shared and found that people often post articles on Twitter they haven't even read.
Categories by subject
Band and music promotion
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to tướng it. (December 2015)
Many independent musicians, as well as large companies such as Universal Music Group, use YouTube to tướng promote videos. Six of the 10 most viral YouTube videos of năm ngoái were rooted in music.
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One such đoạn Clip, the "Free Hugs Campaign" with accompanying music by the Sick Puppies, was one of the winners of the 2006 YouTube Awards. However, the awards received criticism over the voting process and accused of bias. However, the main character of the đoạn Clip, Juan Mann, received positive recognition after being interviewed on Australian news programs and appearing on The Oprah Winfrey Show.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to tướng it. (December 2015)
Viral videos continue to tướng increase in popularity as teaching and instructive sida. In March 2007, an elementary school teacher, Jason Smith, created TeacherTube, a trang web for sharing educational videos with other teachers. The site now features over 54,000 videos. Some college curricula are now using viral videos in the classroom as well. As of 2009, Northwestern University offers a course called "YouTubing 101". The course invites students to tướng produce their own viral videos, focusing on marketing techniques and advertising strategies.
"United Breaks Guitars", by the Canadian folk rock music group Sons of Maxwell, is an example of how viral videos can be used by consumers to tướng pressure companies to tướng settle complaints. Another example is Brian Finkelstein's đoạn Clip complaint to tướng Comcast, 2006. Finkelstein recorded a đoạn Clip of a Comcast technician sleeping on his couch. The technician had come to tướng repair Brian's modem but had to tướng Gọi Comcast's central office and fell asleep after being placed on hold waiting for Comcast.
The Canadian high school student known as Star Wars Kid was subjected to tướng significant harassment and ostracizing after the viral success of his đoạn Clip (first uploaded to tướng the Internet on the evening of 14 April 2003). His family accepted a financial settlement after suing the individuals responsible for posting the đoạn Clip online.
In July 2010, an 11-year-old child with the pseudonym "Jessi Slaughter" was subjected to tướng a chiến dịch of harassment and cyberbullying following the viral nature of videos they had uploaded to tướng Stickam and YouTube. As a result of the case, the potential for cyberbullying as a result of viral videos was widely discussed in the truyền thông.
The Chicago Tribune reported that in năm ngoái, nearly 1,000 civilians in the United States were shot and killed by police officers—whether the officers responsible were justified is now often publicly called into question in the age of viral videos. As more people are uploading videos of their encounters with police, more departments are encouraging their officers to tướng wear toàn thân cameras. The procedure for releasing such đoạn Clip is currently evolving and could potentially incriminate more suspects than vãn officers, although current waiting times of several months to tướng release such videos appear to tướng be attempted cover-ups of police mistakes. In October năm ngoái, then-FBI Director James Comey remarked in a speech at the University of Chicago Law School that the increased attention on police in light of recent viral videos showing police involved in fatal shootings has made officers less aggressive and emboldened criminals. Comey has acknowledged that there are no data to tướng back up his assertion; according to tướng him, viral videos are one of many possible factors such as cheaper drugs and more criminals being released from prison. Other top officials at the Justice Department have stated that they vì thế not believe increased scrutiny of officers has increased crime.
Two videos went viral in October năm ngoái of a white school police officer assaulting an African-American student. The videos, apparently taken with cell phones by other students in the classroom, were picked up by local news outlets and then further spread by social truyền thông.
Dash cam videos of the Chicago police murder of Laquan McDonald were released after 14 months of being kept sealed, which went viral and sparked further questions about police actions. Chicago's mayor, Rahm Emanuel, fired Police Superintendent Garry McCarthy and there have also been demands for Emanuel to tướng resign. A similar case, in which Chicago police attempted to tướng suppress a dash cam đoạn Clip of the shooting of Ronald Johnson by an officer, is currently part of an ongoing federal lawsuit against the đô thị.
The 2008 United States presidential election showcased the impact of political viral videos. For the first time, YouTube hosted the CNN-YouTube presidential debates, calling on YouTube users to tướng pose questions. In this debate, the opinions of viral đoạn Clip creators and users were taken seriously. There were several memorable viral videos that appeared during the chiến dịch. In June 2007, "I Got a Crush... on Obama", a music đoạn Clip featuring a girl claiming to tướng have a crush on presidential candidate Barack Obama, appeared. Unlike previously popular political videos, it did not feature any celebrities and was purely user-generated. The đoạn Clip garnered many viewers and gained attention in the mainstream truyền thông.
YouTube became a powerful source of campaigning for the 2008 Presidential Election. Every major buổi tiệc nhỏ candidate had their own YouTube channel in order to tướng communicate with the voters, with John McCain posting over 300 videos and Barack Obama posting over 1,800 videos. The music đoạn Clip "Yes We Can" by will.i.am demonstrates user-generated publicity for the 2008 Presidential Campaign. The đoạn Clip depicts many celebrities as well as đen thui and white clips of Barack Obama. This music đoạn Clip inspired many parodies and won an Emmy for Best New Approaches in Daytime Entertainment.
The proliferation of viral videos in the 2008 chiến dịch highlights the fact that people increasingly turn to tướng the mạng internet to tướng receive their news. In a study for the Pew Research Center in 2008, approximately 2% of the participants said that they received their news from non-traditional sources such as MySpace or YouTube. The chiến dịch was widely seen as an example of the growing influence of the mạng internet on United States politics, a point further evidenced by the founding of viral đoạn Clip producers lượt thích Brave New Films.
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During the 2012 United States presidential election, "Obama Style" and "Mitt Romney Style", the parodies of Gangnam Style, both peaked on Election Day and received approximately 30 million views within one month before Election Day. "Mitt Romney Style", which negatively portrays Mitt as an affluent, extravagant, and arrogant businessman, received an order of magnitude views more than vãn "Obama Style".
The trang web traffic gained by viral videos allows for advertising revenue. The YouTube trang web is monetized by selling and showing advertising. According to tướng the New York Times, YouTube uses an algorithm called "reference rank" to tướng evaluate the viral potential of videos posted to tướng the site. Using evidence from as few as 10,000 views, it can assess the probability that the đoạn Clip will go viral. Before YouTube implemented wide-scale revenue sharing, if it deemed the đoạn Clip a viable candidate for advertising, it contacted the original poster by e-mail and offered a profit-sharing contract. By this means, such videos as "David After Dentist" have earned more than vãn $100,000 for their owners. One successful YouTube đoạn Clip creator, Andrew Grantham, whose "Ultimate Dog Tease" had been viewed more than vãn 170,000,000 times (as of June 2015), entered an agreement with Paramount Pictures in February 2012 for the development of a feature film. The film was to tướng be written by Alec Berg and David Mandel. Pop stars such as Justin Bieber and Esmée Denters also started their careers via YouTube videos which ultimately went viral. By năm trước, pop stars such as Miley Cyrus, Eminem, and Katy Perry were regularly obtaining trang web traffic in the order of 120 to tướng 150 million hits a month, numbers far in excess of what many viral videos receive.
Companies also use viral videos as a type of marketing strategy. The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty is considered to tướng have been one of the first viral marketing strategies to tướng hit the world when Dove released their Evolution đoạn Clip in 2006. Their online chiến dịch continued to tướng generate viral videos when Real Beauty Sketches was released in 2013 and spread all throughout social truyền thông, especially Facebook and Twitter.
- Internet meme
- List of Internet phenomena
- List of viral videos
- List of viral music videos
- Positive feedback
- Seeding agency
- Shock site
- Streisand effect
- Viral marketing
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- See also: Evolution on YouTube
- CMU Viral Videos A public data phối for viral đoạn Clip study.
- Viral Video Chart Guardian News, UK.
- Photos Gone Viral! Archived 25 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine — slideshow by Life magazine
- YouTube 'Rewind' – YouTube's page covering their top-viewed videos by year and brief information on their spread.
- The Worlds of Viral Video Documentary produced by Off Book (web series)