yak là gì

A yak in the Nepalese Himalayas.

Conservation status

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Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Subfamily: Bovinae
Genus: Bos

B. grunniens

Binomial name
Bos grunniens

Linnaeus, 1766


Poephagus grunniens

The domestic yak (Bos grunniens), also known as the Tartary ox, grunting ox,[1] or hairy cattle,[2] is a species of long-haired domesticated cattle found throughout the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent, the Tibetan Plateau, Gilgit-Baltistan (Kashmir), Tajikistan and as far north as Mongolia and Siberia. It is descended from the wild yak (Bos mutus).[3]


The English word yak originates from the Tibetan: གཡག་, Wylie: g.yag. In Tibetan and Balti it refers only đồ sộ the male of the species, the female being called Tibetan: འབྲི་, Wylie: bri, Tibetan: འབྲི་, Wylie: dri or Tibetan: གནག, Wylie: g.nag in Tibetan and Tibetan: ཧཡག་མོ་, Wylie: hYag-mo in Balti. In English, as in most other languages that have borrowed the word, yak is usually used for both sexes, with bull or cow referring đồ sộ each sex separately.


Bronze model of yak from Gansu, Trung Quốc. Yuan dynasty, 1271–1368 AD

Belonging đồ sộ the genus Bos, Yaks are related đồ sộ cattle (Bos primigenius). Mitochondrial DNA analyses đồ sộ determine the evolutionary history of yaks have been inconclusive.

The yak may have diverged from cattle at any point between one and five million years ago, and there is some suggestion that it may be more closely related đồ sộ bison phàn nàn đồ sộ the other members of its designated genus.[4] Apparent close fossil relatives of the yak, such as Bos baikalensis, have been found in eastern Russia, suggesting a possible route by which yak-like ancestors of the modern American bison could have entered the Americas.[5]

The species was originally designated as Bos grunniens ("grunting ox") by Linnaeus in 1766, but this name is now generally considered đồ sộ refer only đồ sộ the domesticated khuông of the animal, with Bos mutus ("mute ox") being the preferred name for the wild species. Although some authors still consider the wild yak đồ sộ be a subspecies, Bos grunniens mutus, the ICZN made an official ruling in 2003[6] permitting the use of the name Bos mutus for wild yaks, and this is now the more common usage.[7][5][8]

Except where the wild yak is considered as a subspecies of Bos grunniens, there are no recognised subspecies of yak.

Physical characteristics[edit]

A domestic yak at Yamdrok Lake.

Yaks are heavily built animals with bulky frames, sturdy legs, rounded, cloven hooves, and extremely dense, long fur that hangs down lower phàn nàn the belly. While wild yaks are generally dark, blackish đồ sộ brown in colouration, domestic yaks can be quite variable in colour, often having patches of rusty brown and cream. They have small ears and wide foreheads, with smooth horns that are generally dark in colour. In males (bulls), the horns sweep out from the sides of the head, and then curve backward; they typically range from 48 đồ sộ 99 cm (19 đồ sộ 39 in) in length.

The horns of females (cows) are smaller, at 27 đồ sộ 64 cm (11 đồ sộ 25 in) in length, and have a more upright shape. Both sexes have a short neck with a pronounced hump over the shoulders, although this is larger and more visible in males.[5] Males weigh 350 đồ sộ 585 kg (772 đồ sộ 1,290 lb), females weigh 225 đồ sộ 255 kg (496 đồ sộ 562 lb). Wild yaks can be substantially heavier, bulls reaching weights of up đồ sộ 1,000 kilograms (2,200 lb).[9] Depending on the breed, domestic yak males are 111–138 centimetres (44–54 in) high at the withers, while females are 105–117 centimetres (41–46 in) high at the withers.[10]

Both sexes have long shaggy hair with a dense woolly undercoat over the chest, flanks, and thighs đồ sộ insulate them from the cold. Especially in bulls, this may khuông a long "skirt" that can reach the ground. The tail is long and horselike rather phàn nàn tufted lượt thích the tails of cattle or bison. Domesticated yaks have a wide range of coat colours, with some individuals being white, grey, brown, roan or piebald. The udder in females and the scrotum in males are small and hairy, as protection against the cold. Females have four teats.[5]

Yaks are not known đồ sộ produce the characteristic lowing (mooing) sound of cattle, but both wild and domestic yaks grunt and squeak, which inspired the scientific name of the domestic yak variant, Bos grunniens (grunting bull). Nikolay Przhevalsky named the wild variant Bos mutus (silent bull) believing that it did not make a sound at all, but it does.[11]


Yak rider near Tsomgo Lake, Sikkim (3700 m)

Yak physiology is well adapted đồ sộ high altitudes, having larger lungs and heart phàn nàn cattle found at lower altitudes, as well as greater capacity for transporting oxygen through their blood,[12][13] due đồ sộ the persistence of foetal haemoglobin throughout life.[14] Conversely, yaks have trouble thriving at lower altitudes,[15] and are prone đồ sộ suffering from heat exhaustion above about 15 °C (59 °F). Further adaptations đồ sộ the cold include a thick layer of subcutaneous fat, and an almost complete lack of functional sweat glands.[12]

Compared with domestic cattle, the rumen of yaks is unusually large, relative đồ sộ the omasum.[citation needed] This likely allows them đồ sộ consume greater quantities of low-quality food at a time, and đồ sộ ferment it longer ví as đồ sộ extract more nutrients.[12] Yak consume the equivalent of 1% of their body toàn thân weight daily while cattle require 3% đồ sộ maintain condition.[citation needed] They are grazing herbivores, with their wild ancestors feeding primarily on grass and sedges,[16] with some herbs and dwarf shrubs.[17]

Reproduction and life history[edit]

Ten-day-old yak.

Yaks mate in the summer, typically between July and September, depending on the local environment. For the remainder of the year, many bulls wander in small bachelor groups away from the large herds, but, as the rut approaches, they become aggressive and regularly fight among each other đồ sộ establish dominance. In addition đồ sộ non-violent threat displays, bellowing, and scraping the ground with their horns, bull yaks also compete more directly, repeatedly charging at each other with heads lowered or sparring with their horns. Like bison, but unlike cattle, males wallow in dry soil during the rut, often while scent-marking with urine or dung.[5] Females enter oestrus up đồ sộ four times a year, and females are receptive only for a few hours in each cycle.[18]

Gestation lasts between 257 and 270 days,[12] ví that the young are born between May and June, and results in the birth of a single calf. The cow finds a secluded spot đồ sộ give birth, but the calf is able đồ sộ walk within about ten minutes of birth, and the pair soon rejoin the herd.[12] Females of both the wild and domestic forms typically give birth only once every other year,[5] although more frequent births are possible if the food supply is good.

Calves are weaned at one year and become independent shortly thereafter. Wild calves are initially brown in color, and only later develop the darker adult hair. Females generally give birth for the first time at three or four years of age,[19] and reach their peak reproductive fitness at around six years. Yaks may live for more phàn nàn twenty years in domestication or captivity,[5] although it is likely that this may be somewhat shorter in the wild.


Domesticated yaks have been kept for thousands of years, primarily for their milk, fibre (wool), and meat, and as beasts of burden. Their dried droppings are an important fuel, used all over Tibet, and are often the only fuel available on the high, treeless Tibetan Plateau. Yaks transport goods across mountain passes for local farmers and traders and are an attraction for climbing and trekking expeditions: "Only one thing makes it hard đồ sộ use yaks for long journeys in barren regions. They will not eat grain, which could be carried on the journey. They will starve unless they can be brought đồ sộ a place where there is grass."[20] They also are used đồ sộ draw ploughs.[21] Yaks' milk is often processed đồ sộ a cheese called chhurpi in Tibetan and Nepali languages, and byaslag in Mongolia. Butter made from yaks' milk is an ingredient of the butter tea that Tibetans consume in large quantities,[22] and is also used in lamps and made into butter sculptures used in religious festivities.[23]

Yak racing

Outside the Himalayas[edit]

Small numbers of herds can be found in the United States and Canada, as well as New Zealand and some parts of Europe. Yaks have generated interest outside the Himalayas as a commercial crop and by cattle breeders. The main interest of North American yak breeders is lean meat production by hybridizing with other cattle, followed by wool production.[24]


The Indian government established a dedicated centre for research into yak husbandry, the ICAR-National Research Centre on Yak, in 1989. It is located at Dirang, Arunachal Pradesh, and maintains a yak farm in the Nyukmadung area at an altitude of 2,750 metres (9,020 ft) above MSL.[25]

Yak breeding and hybridization[edit]

In Nepal, Tibet, and Mongolia, domestic cattle are crossbred with yaks. This gives rise đồ sộ the infertile male dzo མཛོ། as well as fertile females known as dzomo or zhom མཛོ་མོ།, which may be crossed again with cattle. The Dwarf Lulu breed, "the only Bos primigenius taurus type of cattle in Nepal" has been tested for DNA markers and found đồ sộ be a mixture of both taurine and zebu types of cattle (B. p. taurus and B. p. indicus) with yak.[26] According đồ sộ the International Veterinary Information Service, the low productivity of second-generation cattle–yak crosses makes them suitable only as meat animals.[27]

Crosses between yaks and domestic cattle (Bos primigenius taurus) have been recorded in Chinese literature for at least 2,000 years.[5] Successful crosses have also been recorded between yak and American bison,[27] gaur, and banteng, generally with similar results đồ sộ those produced with domestic cattle.[5]

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Linguistic evidence for yak domestication[edit]

Jacques et al. (2021)[28] show that most elaborate yak-related terminologies are found within Tibetic and Gyalrongic languages. Both branches also have native terms for yak-cattle hybrids, suggesting that Tibetic and Gyalrongic speakers may have independently cross-bred yaks and cattle, predating the proto-Gyalrongic split (3221 [2169-4319] BP[29]) from Tibeto-Gyalrongic.


Blood-drinking festival[edit]

In Nepal, there is an annual festival held đồ sộ drink fresh blood of yak in a belief that it cures varieties of disease such as gastritis, jaundice and body toàn thân sprain.[30][31] The fresh blood is extracted from the neck of a yak without killing it. The cut is healed after the ceremony is over.[32] The ritual is believed đồ sộ be originated in Tibet and Mustang.[33]

Yak sports[edit]

In parts of Tibet and Karakorum, yak racing is a khuông of entertainment at traditional festivals and is considered an important part of their culture. More recently, sports involving domesticated yaks, such as yak skiing or yak polo, are being marketed as tourist attractions in South Asian countries, including in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.[citation needed]


  • Yaks in Manali, Himachal Pradesh, India saddled for riding

    Yaks in Manali, Himachal Pradesh, India saddled for riding

  • Train of pack yaks at Litang monastery in Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan, China

    Train of pack yaks at Litang monastery in Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan, China

  • Yaks plowing fields in Tibet

    Yaks plowing fields in Tibet

  • A Tibetan Yak in Russia

    A Tibetan Yak in Russia

  • Yaks in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

    Yaks in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

  • Domestic yak in Mao County, China

    Domestic yak in Mao County, China

  • Girl on Yak in Yunnan Province, China

    Girl on Yak in Yunnan Province, China

  • A yak at Mount Siguniang Scenic Area, Sichuan, China

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See also[edit]

  • Yakalo


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  2. ^ "Yak | mammal | Britannica".
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  31. ^ "People flock đồ sộ Mustang đồ sộ drink yak blood". Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  32. ^ "Festival đồ sộ drink Yak blood begins in Nepal". Hindustan Times. đôi mươi July 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  33. ^ Ians (11 March 2010). "Nepal now sees blood drinking festival". The Hindu. Kathmandu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 7 June 2021.

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